Granular packings with sliding, rolling, and twisting friction
A. P. Santos, D. S. Bolintineanu, G. S. Grest, J. B. Lechman, S. J. Plimpton, I. Srivastava, L. E. Silbert, Phys Rev E, 102, 032903 (2020).
Intuition tells us that a rolling or spinning sphere will eventually stop due to the presence of friction and other dissipative interactions. The resistance to rolling and spinning or twisting torque that stops a sphere also changes the microstructure of a granular packing of frictional spheres by increasing the number of constraints on the degrees of freedom of motion. We perform discrete element modeling simulations to construct sphere packings implementing a range of frictional constraints under a pressure-controlled protocol. Mechanically stable packings are achievable at volume fractions and average coordination numbers as low as 0.53 and 2.5, respectively, when the particles experience high resistance to sliding, rolling, and twisting. Only when the particle model includes rolling and twisting friction were experimental volume fractions reproduced.
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